Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2 … , and represent whole-number sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram.
Create a number line that represents the height of 5–10 endangered animals. Compare their heights.
Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.
Research how many animals there are on the earth left of any endangered animals that live near your location. Write those numbers next to the animal names. Compare them to animal populations in your region that are not endangered.
Use observations to describe patterns of what plants and animals (including humans) need to survive.
All animals need food in order to live and grow. They obtain their food from plants or from other animals. Examples of patterns could include the different kinds of food needed by different types of animals.
Construct an argument supported by evidence for how plants and animals (including humans) can change the environment to meet their needs.
Plants and animals can change their environment. Things that people do to live comfortably can affect the world around them. But they can make choices that reduce their impacts on the land, water, air, and other living things.
Communicate solutions that will reduce the impact of humans on the land, water, air, and/or other living things in the local environment.
Humans can make choices that reduce their impacts on the land, water, air, and other living things. Examples of human impact on the land could include cutting trees to produce paper and using resources to produce bottles. Examples of solutions could include reusing paper and recycling cans and bottles. Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem's solutions to other people.
Develop a simple model that mimics the function of an animal in dispersing seeds or pollinating plants.
Plants depend on animals for pollination or to move their seeds around. Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem's solutions to other people.
Develop a model to describe the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment.
Organisms are related in food webs in which some animals eat plants for food and other animals eat the animals that eat plants. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their particular needs are met. A healthy ecosystem is one in which multiple species of different types are each able to meet their needs in a relatively stable web of life. Newly introduced species can damage the balance of an ecosystem.
Analyze and interpret data from fossils to provide evidence of the organisms and the environments in which they lived long ago.
Some kinds of plants and animals that once lived on Earth are no longer found anywhere. Examples of data could include type, size, and distributions of fossil organisms. Examples of fossils could include fossils of extinct organisms.
Use evidence to construct an explanation for how the variations in characteristics among individuals may provide advantages in surviving, finding mates, and reproducing.
Populations of animals are classified by their characteristics. Examples of cause and effect relationships could be that living things with stronger defenses may be less likely to be eaten by predators or that animals that have better camouflage coloration than other animals may be more likely to survive and therefore more likely to leave offspring.
Make a claim about the merit of a solution to a problem caused when the environment changes and the types of plants and animals that live there may change.
Populations live in a variety of habitats, and change in those habitats affects the organisms living there. When the environment changes in ways that affect a place's physical characteristics, temperature, or availability of resources, some organisms survive and reproduce, others move to new locations, yet others move into the transformed environment, and some die.
Support, obtain and combine information about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect the Earth's resources and environment.
Human activities in agriculture, industry, and everyday life have effects on the land, vegetation, streams, ocean, air, and organisms. Individuals and communities are doing things to help protect Earth's resources and environments.
Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.
Organisms, and populations of organisms, are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors. Growth of organisms and population increases are limited by access to resources. In any ecosystem, organisms and populations with similar requirements for food, water, oxygen, or other resources may compete with each other for limited resources, access to which consequently constrains their growth and reproduction. Emphasis is on cause and effect relationships between resources and growth of individual organisms and the numbers of organisms in ecosystems during periods of abundant and scarce resources.
Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems.
Emphasis is on predicting consistent patterns of interactions in different ecosystems in terms of the relationships among and between organisms and abiotic components of ecosystems. Examples of types of interactions could include competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial. Predatory interactions may reduce the number of organisms or eliminate whole populations of organisms. Mutually beneficial interactions, in contrast, may become so interdependent that each organism requires the other for survival. Although the species involved in these competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial interactions vary across ecosystems, the patterns of interactions of organisms with their environments, both living and nonliving, are shared.
Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations.
Ecosystems are dynamic in nature; their characteristics can vary over time. Disruptions to any physical or biological component of an ecosystem can lead to shifts in all its populations. Emphasis is on recognizing patterns in data and making warranted inferences about changes in populations, and on evaluating empirical evidence supporting arguments about changes to ecosystems.
Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Biodiversity describes the variety of species found in Earth's terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems. The completeness or integrity of an ecosystem's biodiversity is often used as a measure of its health. There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet the criteria and constraints of a problem.
Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment.
Human activities can have consequences (negative and positive) on the biosphere, sometimes altering natural habitats and causing the extinction of other species. Examples of the design process include examining human environmental impacts, assessing the kinds of solutions that are feasible, and designing and evaluating solutions that could reduce that impact. Examples of human impacts can include water usage (such as the withdrawal of water from streams and aquifers or the construction of dams and levees), land usage (such as urban development, agriculture, or the removal of wetlands), and pollution (such as of the air, water, or land).
Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth's systems.
Examples of evidence include grade-appropriate databases on human populations and the rates of consumption of food and natural resources (such as freshwater, mineral, and energy). The consequences of increases in human populations and consumption of natural resources are described by science, but science does not make the decisions for the actions society takes. Technology and engineering can potentially mitigate impacts on Earth's systems as both human populations and per-capita consumption of natural resources increase.
Ask questions to interpret evidence of the factors that cause climate variability over time.
Examples of evidence can include tables, graphs, and maps of global and regional temperatures, atmospheric levels of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, and natural resource use. Mitigating current changes in climate depends on understanding climate science. Current scientific models indicate that human activities, such as the release of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion, are the primary factors in the measured rise in Earth's mean surface temperature. Natural activities, such as changes in incoming solar radiation, also contribute to changing global temperatures.