Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another.
Sort your lunch into food chain categories. Primary, secondary, tertiary consumers. Know that you are the ultimate consumer in this chain. Discuss which food goes into which category and how many items fall in each category. Compare how many more are in the largest group or which group is the smallest.
Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one and two step “how many more” and “how many less” problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets.
Plants are called producers because they produce energy using the sun's light. Experiment with several plants of the same kind. Place some in the sun, some in shadow, and some in complete darkness such as a closet or under a box. Be sure they all get watered equally. Watch the plants for several weeks. Create a picture graph or bar graph to represent what happened.
Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.
Mold and bacteria are decomposers. Have students identify samples of places that they believe will have bacteria, mold or other microorganisms growing such as the corners of the bathrooms, door handles, top of the bookcase, etc. by using a cotton swab. Wipe the collection onto a slice of regular bread and place the bread inside a zipper storage bag with a few drops of water. Zip closed. Leave the bread available for observation. You might select different areas of the school and label the bags accordingly to compare. Do not open the bags. Measure the approximate mathematical area of the bread that shows growth through the plastic and continue this for days to plot growth. Create a table to log the change.
Use observations to describe patterns of what plants and animals (including humans) need to survive.
Examples of patterns could include that all animals need food in order to live and grow, and the different kinds of food needed by different types of animals. Animals obtain their food from plants or from other animals.
Use a model to represent the relationship between the needs of different plants and animals and the places they live.
Living things need water, food, air, and resources from the land, and they live in places that have the things they need. An example of a relationship is that deer eat buds and leaves so they usually live in forested areas. Plants, animals and their surroundings make up a system. Humans use natural resources for everything they do.
Develop a model to describe the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment.
A healthy ecosystem is one in which multiple species of different types are each able to meet their needs in a relatively stable web of life. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs are met. The food of almost kind of animal can be traced back to plants. Organisms are related in food webs in which some animals eat plants for food and other animals eat the animals that eat plants. Some organisms, such as fungi and bacteria, break down dead organisms and therefore operate as decomposers. Decomposition eventually restores (recycles) some materials back to the soil. Matter cycles between the air and soil and among plants, animals, and microbes as these organisms live and die. Organisms obtain gases and water from the environment, and release waste matter (gas, liquid, or solid) back into the environment. Emphasis is on the idea that matter that is not food (air, water, decomposed materials in soil) is changed by plants into matter that is food.
Use models to describe that energy in animals' food (used for body repair, growth, motion, and to maintain body warmth) was once energy from the sun.
Food provides animals with the materials they need for body repair and growth and the energy they need to maintain body warmth and for motion. The energy released from food was once energy from the sun that was captured by plants in the chemical process that forms plant matter (from air and water). Examples of models could include diagrams, and flow charts.
Support, obtain and combine information about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect the Earth's resources and environment.
Human activities in agriculture, industry, and everyday life have effects on the land, vegetation, streams, ocean, and populations of organisms. Individuals and communities are doing things to help protect Earth's resources and environments.
Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms.
Emphasis is on tracing movement of matter and flow of energy. Plants, algae (including phytoplankton), and many microorganisms use the energy from light to make sugars (food) from carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and water through the process of photosynthesis.
Develop a model to describe how food is rearranged through chemical reactions forming new molecules that support growth and/or release energy as this matter moves through an organism.
Emphasis is on describing that molecules are broken apart and put back together and that in this process, energy is released. Within individual organisms, food moves through a series of chemical reactions (cellular respiration) in which it is broken down and rearranged to form new molecules, to support growth, or to release energy.
Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.
Organisms, and populations of organisms, are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors. In any ecosystem, organisms and populations with similar requirements for food, water, oxygen, or other resources may compete with each other for limited resources, access to which consequently constrains their growth and reproduction. Growth of organisms and population increases are limited by access to resources. Emphasis is on cause and effect relationships between resources and growth of individual organisms and the numbers of organisms in ecosystems during periods of abundant and scarce resources.
Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems.
Predatory interactions may reduce the number of organisms or eliminate whole populations of organisms. Mutually beneficial interactions, in contrast, may become so interdependent that each organism requires the other for survival. Although the species involved in these competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial interactions vary across ecosystems, the patterns of interactions of organisms with their environments are shared. Emphasis is on predicting consistent patterns of interactions in different ecosystems in terms of the relationships among and between organisms.
Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.
Food webs are models that demonstrate how matter and energy is transferred between producers, consumers, and decomposers as the three groups interact within an ecosystem. Transfers of matter into and out of the physical environment occur at every level. Decomposers recycle nutrients from dead plant or animal matter back to the soil in terrestrial environments or to the water in aquatic environments. The atoms that make up the organisms in an ecosystem are cycled repeatedly between the living and nonliving parts of the ecosystem.
Develop a model to describe the flow of energy through the trophic levels of an ecosystem.
Food webs can be broken down into multiple energy pyramids. Concepts should include the 10% rule of energy and biomass transfer between trophic levels and the environment. Emphasis is on describing the transfer of mass and energy beginning with producers, moving to primary and secondary consumers, and ending with decomposers.