Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
Explain your opinion of green energy in your home, your school, and your community.
Delineate a speaker's argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.
Create a scenario where green energy topics would be discussed, giving students the opportunity to argue the pros and cons of green energy. Specific facts need to be cited and addressed throughout the discussion.
Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units– whole numbers, halves, or quarters.
Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.
According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration “the energy in a 300 (food) calorie ice cream cone is about the same as the amount of electricity required to light a 100-watt incandescent bulb for 3¾ hours.” How much energy will it take in food calories to light that bulb for the duration of your school day? For a week of school? What foods can you find that will equal that amount? How is this information useful in the real world? Consult this Energy Kids site for additional information and a calculator.
Communicate solutions that will reduce the impact of humans on the land, water, air, and/or other living things in the local environment.
Things that people do can affect the world around them. But they can make choices that reduce their impacts on the land, water, air, and other living things. Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem's solutions to other people.
Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.
Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, heat, sound, or light. Energy can be transferred from place to place by electrical currents, which can then be used locally to produce motion, sound, heat, or light. To "produce energy" typically refers to the conversion of stored energy into a desired form for practical use.
Obtain and combine information to describe that energy and fuels are derived from natural resources and their uses affect the environment.
Examples of renewable energy resources could include wind energy, water behind dams, and sunlight; non-renewable energy resources are fossil fuels and atomic energy. Examples of environmental effects could include negative biological impacts of wind turbines, erosion due to deforestation, loss of habitat due to dams, loss of habitat due to surface mining, and air pollution from burning of fossil fuels.
Make a claim about the merit of a solution to a problem caused when the environment changes and the types of plants and animals that live there may change.
When the environment changes in ways that affect a place's physical characteristics, some organisms survive and reproduce, others move to new locations, yet others move into the transformed environment, and some die.
Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment.
Human activities can have consequences on the biosphere. Examples of the design process include examining human environmental impacts, assessing the kinds of solutions that are feasible, and designing and evaluating solutions that could reduce that impact. Examples of human impacts can include water usage, land usage, and pollution.
Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth's systems.
Examples of evidence include grade-appropriate databases on human populations and the rates of consumption of food and natural resources (such as freshwater, mineral, and energy). The consequences of increases in human populations and consumption of natural resources are described by science, but science does not make the decisions for the actions society takes. Technology and engineering can potentially mitigate impacts on Earth's systems as both human populations and per-capita consumption of natural resources increase.
Ask questions to interpret evidence of the factors that cause climate variability over time.
Examples of evidence can include tables, graphs, and maps of global and regional temperatures, atmospheric levels of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, and natural resource use. Mitigating current changes in climate depends on understanding climate science. Current scientific models indicate that human activities, such as the release of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion, are the primary factors in the measured rise in Earth's mean surface temperature.
Engineering and Technology
ETS1.A: Defining Engineering Problems
A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. Such problems may have many acceptable solutions. Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems. Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account. The more precisely a design task's criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that is likely to limit possible solution.
ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions
Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem's solutions to other people. Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions. A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results in order to improve it. The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution. There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet criteria and constraints of a problem.
ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution
Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs. Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and the constraints.