Physical Sciences: PS1-5-2 [ICS page]
Measure and graph quantities to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling, or mixing substances, the total weight of matter is conserved.
The amount (weight) of matter is conserved when it changes form, even in transitions in which it seems to vanish. No matter what reaction or change in properties occurs, the total weight of the substances does not change. Examples of reactions or changes could include phase changes, dissolving, and mixing that form new substances.
Physical Sciences: PS1-5-3 [ICS page]
Make observations and measurements to identify materials based on their properties.
Measurements of a variety of properties can be used to identify materials. (At this grade level, mass and weight are not distinguished.)
Life Sciences: LS2-5-4 [ICS page]
Make a claim about the merit of a solution to a problem caused when the environment changes and the types of plants and animals that live there may change.
Populations live in a variety of habitats, and change in those habitats affects the organisms living there Examples of environmental changes could include changes in land characteristics, water distribution, temperature, food, and other organisms. When the environment changes in ways that affect a place's physical characteristics, temperature, or availability of resources, some organisms survive, others move to new locations, others move into the transformed environment, and some die.
Earth and Space Sciences: ESS1-5-1 [ICS page]
Represent data in graphical displays to reveal patterns of daily changes in length of direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars.
The orbits of Earth around the sun and of the moon around Earth, together with the rotation of Earth about an axis between its North and South poles, cause observable patterns. These include daily changes in the length and direction of shadows, and different positions of the sun, moon, and stars at different times of the day, month, and year.
Earth and Space Sciences: ESS2-5-2 [ICS page]
Describe and graph the amounts and percentages of water and fresh water in various reservoirs to provide evidence about the distribution of water on Earth.
Nearly all of Earth's available water is in the ocean. Assessment is limited to oceans, lakes, river, glaciers, ground water, and polar ice caps.
Sixth Grade/Middle School
Physical Sciences: PS1-MS-2 [ICS page]
Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.
Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties (for any bulk quantity under given conditions) that can be used to identify it. Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants. Assessment may include analysis of density, melting point, boiling point, solubility, and flammability.
Physical Sciences: PS1-MS-6 [ICS page]
Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.
Emphasis is on the design, controlling the transfer of energy to the environment, and modification of the device using factors such as concentration of the substance. Criteria could include amount, time, and temperature of substance in testing the device.
Physical Sciences: PS2-MS-2 [ICS page]
Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object's motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.
Emphasis is on balanced and unbalanced forces in a system, comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion, frame of reference, and specification of units. All positions of objects and the directions of forces and motions must be described in arbitrarily chosen reference frame and units of size.
Physical Sciences: PS2-MS-3 [ICS page]
Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.
Devices that use electric and magnetic forces could include electromagnets, electric motors, or generators. Examples of data could include the effect of the number of turns of wire on the strength of an electromagnet, or the effect of increasing the number or strength of magnets on the speed of an electric motor.
Physical Sciences: PS3-MS-4 [ICS page]
Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample.
Examples of experiments could include comparing final water temperature after different masses of ice melted in the same volume of water with the same initial temperature, the temperature change of samples of different materials with the same mass as they cool or heat in the environment, or the same material with different masses when a specific amount of energy is added. Temperature of a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter.
Physical Sciences: PS3-MS-5 [ICS page]
Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.
When the motion energy of an object changes, there is inevitably some other change in energy at the same time. Evidence used in arguments could include the energy before and after the transfer in the form of temperature changes or motion of the object.
Physical Sciences: PS4-MS-1 [ICS page]
Use mathematical representations to describe a model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave.
A simple wave has a repeating patterns with a specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude. Emphasis is on describing waves both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Life Sciences: LS2-MS-1 [ICS page]
Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.
Growth of organisms and population increases are limited by access to resources. Emphasis is on cause and effect relationships between resources and growth of individual organisms and the numbers of organisms in ecosystems during periods of scarce and abundant resources.
Life Sciences: LS2-MS-5 [ICS page]
Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations.
Ecosystems are dynamic in nature. Disruptions to any physical or biological component of an ecosystem can lead to shifts in all its populations. Emphasis is on recognizing patterns in data and making warranted inferences about changes in populations.
Life Sciences: LS4-MS-6 [ICS page]
Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time.
Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change. Thus, the distribution of traits in a population changes. Emphasis is on using mathematical models to support explanations of trends in changes to populations over time. Examples could include Peppered Moth population changes before and after the industrial revolution.
Earth and Space Sciences: ESS1-MS-3 [ICS page]
Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system.
Emphasis is on the analysis of data from Earth-based instruments, space-based telescopes, and spacecraft to determine similarities and differences among solar system objects. Examples of scale properties include the sizes of an object's layers (such as crust and atmosphere), surface features, and orbital radius.
Earth and Space Sciences: ESS2-MS-5 [ICS page]
Collect data to provide evidence for how the motions and complex interactions of air masses results in changes in weather conditions.
The complex patterns of the changes and the movements of water in the atmosphere, determined by winds, landforms, and ocean temperatures and currents, are major determinants of local weather patterns. Emphasis is on how air masses flow from regions of low pressure, causing weather (defined by temperature, pressure, humidity, precipitation, and wind) at a fixed location to change over time.
Earth and Space Sciences: ESS3-MS-4 [ICS page]
Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth's systems.
Examples of evidence include databases on human populations and the rates of consumption of food and natural resources. Examples of impacts can include changes to the appearance, composition, and structure of Earth's systems as well as the rates at which they change.
Earth and Space Sciences: ESS3-MS-5 [ICS page]
Ask questions to interpret evidence of the factors that cause climate variability over time.
Examples of evidence can include tables, graphs, and maps of measured global and regional temperatures, atmospheric levels of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, and natural resource use.