Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends.
Chart the number of days in a month that your class can observe the moon during the school day. Cloudy days might not allow your class to see the moon that day, or the moon might not be visible until after kids go home. Determine if the final number is odd or even.
Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way.
Use images of the moon in all of its phases to create a pattern. Share with another student and have them create the next 5 items in your pattern.
Use observations of the sun, moon, and stars to describe patterns that can be predicted.
Patterns of the motion of the sun, moon, and stars in the sky can be observed, described, and predicted. Examples of patterns could include that the moon appears to rise in one part of the sky, move across the sky, and set.
Generate and compare multiple solutions that use patterns to transfer information.
Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and the constraints. Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions.
Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons.
Patterns of the apparent motion of the sun, the moon, and stars in the sky can be observed, described, predicted, and explained with models. This model of the solar system can explain eclipses of the sun and the moon.
Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system.
A solar system consists of a star and a collection of objects, including planets and their moons, that are held in orbit around the star by its gravitational pull on them. Our solar system appears to have formed from a disk of dust and gas, drawn together by gravity. Emphasis for the model is on gravity as the force that holds together the solar system, and controls orbital motions within it. Evidences of models can be physical (such as computer visualizations of elliptical orbits) or conceptual (such as mathematical proportions relative to the size of familiar objects.)
Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system.
Emphasis is on the analysis of data from Earth-based instruments, space-based telescopes, and spacecraft to determine similarities and differences among solar system objects. Examples of scale properties include the sizes of an object's layers, surface features, and orbital radius.
Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.
There is a gravitational force between any two masses, but it is very small except when one or both of the objects have large mass (such as a planet.) Examples of evidence for arguments could include data generated from simulations or digital tools; and charts displaying mass, strength of interaction, distance from the Sun, and orbital periods of objects within the solar system.