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The Moon: Standards

Idaho Common Core State Standards

Here are correlations to the National Common Core Language and Math standards and to the Idaho State Science Standards. If you'd like, you may go directly to the Idaho science standards for this topic. For more information about the overall standards, see the complete Idaho Content Standards for Science, the Next Generation Science Standards, the Common Core Language standards, or the Common Core Math standards.


Second Grade

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.2.5 [CCSS page]

Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.

Suggested Lesson

Create your own book about the moon. Include captions, subheadings, bold print, vocabulary, etc.

Fifth Grade

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.5.7 [CCSS page]

Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

Suggested Lesson

Research one of the astronauts who went to the moon. Find out all you can about this person. Create a timeline about their life.

Sixth Grade

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6.7 [CCSS page]

Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.

Suggested Lesson

Find out what scientists believe about how the moon originated. Include all theories as well as evidence. Write a well-composed paper.



CCSS.Math.Content.K.MD.A.1 [CCSS page]

Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object.

Suggested Lesson

Discuss attributes of the moon that scientists might measure.

First Grade

CCSS.Math.Content.1.MD.A.1 [CCSS page]

Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object.

Suggested Lesson

Order the distance to the moon, the sun and another solar body.

Second Grade

CCSS.Math.Content.2.OA.C.3 [CCSS page]

Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends.

Suggested Lesson

Chart the number of days in a month that your class can observe the moon during the school day. Cloudy days might not allow your class to see the moon that day, or the moon might not be visible until after kids go home. Determine if the final number is odd or even.

Fourth Grade

CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.C.5 [CCSS page]

Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way.

Suggested Lesson

Use images of the moon in all of its phases to create a pattern. Share with another student and have them create the next 5 items in your pattern.


First Grade

Earth and Space Sciences: ESS1-1-1 [ICS page]

Use observations of the sun, moon, and stars to describe patterns that can be predicted.

Supporting Content:

Patterns of the motion of the sun, moon, and stars in the sky can be observed, described, and predicted. Examples of patterns could include that the moon appears to rise in one part of the sky, move across the sky, and set.

Third Grade

Physical Sciences: PS1-3-2[ICS page]

Make observations and/or measurements of an object's motion to provide evidence that a pattern can be used to predict future motion.

Supporting Content:

The patterns of an object's motion in various situations can be observed and measured; when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it.

Fourth Grade

Physical Sciences: PS2-4-3 [ICS page]

Generate and compare multiple solutions that use patterns to transfer information.

Supporting Content:

Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and the constraints. Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions.

Fifth Grade

Earth and Space Sciences: ESS1-5-2 [ICS page]

Represent data in graphical displays to reveal patterns of daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky.

Supporting Content:

The orbits of Earth around the sun and of the moon around Earth cause observable patterns. These include different positions of the sun, moon, and stars at different times of the day, month, and year.

Sixth Grade/Middle School

Earth and Space Sciences: ESS1-MS-1 [ICS page]

Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons.

Supporting Content:

Patterns of the apparent motion of the sun, the moon, and stars in the sky can be observed, described, predicted, and explained with models. This model of the solar system can explain eclipses of the sun and the moon.

Earth and Space Sciences: ESS1-MS-2 [ICS page]

Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system.

Supporting Content:

A solar system consists of a star and a collection of objects, including planets and their moons, that are held in orbit around the star by its gravitational pull on them. Our solar system appears to have formed from a disk of dust and gas, drawn together by gravity. Emphasis for the model is on gravity as the force that holds together the solar system, and controls orbital motions within it. Evidences of models can be physical (such as computer visualizations of elliptical orbits) or conceptual (such as mathematical proportions relative to the size of familiar objects.)

Earth and Space Sciences: ESS1-MS-3 [ICS page]

Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system.

Supporting Content:

Emphasis is on the analysis of data from Earth-based instruments, space-based telescopes, and spacecraft to determine similarities and differences among solar system objects. Examples of scale properties include the sizes of an object's layers, surface features, and orbital radius.

Physical Sciences: PS2-MS-4 [ICS page]

Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.

Supporting Content:

There is a gravitational force between any two masses, but it is very small except when one or both of the objects have large mass (such as a planet.) Examples of evidence for arguments could include data generated from simulations or digital tools; and charts displaying mass, strength of interaction, distance from the Sun, and orbital periods of objects within the solar system.

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