Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
Before beginning your unit on mountain goats, have students each generate a question about them. When you have finished studying them, have students answer their own question or trade and have students answer someone else's question.
Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.¹
Using a piece of graph paper as the mountain, get the mountain goat to the top first. Roll the dice once to get the goat to move forward. On your next turn, roll just one of them and subtract as the goat retreats to get water or food. On the next turn roll both dice and move forward again. Play in pairs or in small groups.
Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one- and two-step word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.¹
How much is the word "mountain goat" worth, when the letters have different values, e.g., a=50, b=100, c=150, and so on? Change up the values to create new problems.
Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100.
Before doing this activity, preselect values for each of the parts of the mountain goat. This could be done by the teacher, or as a group effort. Give each student a copy of this printable. Students roll dice, placing the values into columns for place value until they reach the preselected value. When they arrive at a number that can be rounded to one of the preselected values, that part of the goat anatomy gets colored. Be the first to get all parts colored. For a basic version, allow students to work on only one part at a time, color it and then move to another part. For a challenge and a bit of strategy, students can choose which roll of the dice goes to which part of the anatomy.
Use observations to describe patterns of what plants and animals (including humans) need to survive.
Examples of patterns could include that all animals need food in order to live and grow, and the different kinds of food needed by different types of animals. Animals obtain their food from plants or from other animals.
Use materials to design a solution to a human problem by mimicking how plants or animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs.
Animals have body parts that capture and convey different kinds of information needed for growth and survival. Animals respond to these inputs with behaviors that help them survive. Different animals use their body parts in different ways to see, hear, grasp objects, protect themselves, move from place to place, and seek and take in food.
Use a model to describe that animals receive different types of information through their senses, process the information in their brain, and respond to the information in different ways.
Different sense receptors are specialized for particular kinds of information, which may be then processed by the animal's brain. Animals are able to use their perceptions and memories to guide their actions.
Develop a model to describe the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment.
The food of almost any kind of animal can be traced back to plants. Organisms are related in food webs in which some animals eat plants for food and other animals eat the animals that eat plants. Decomposition eventually restores (recycles) some materials back to the soil. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their particular needs are met. A healthy ecosystem is one in which multiple species of different types are each able to meet their needs in a relatively stable web of life.
Use evidence to construct an explanation for how the variations in characteristics among individuals of the same species may provide advantages in surviving, finding mates, and reproducing.
Populations of animals are classified by their characteristics. An example of cause and effect relationships could be animals that have better camouflage coloration than other animals may be more likely to survive and therefore more likely to leave offspring.
Make a claim about the merit of a solution to a problem caused when the environment changes and the types of plants and animals that live there may change.
Populations live in a variety of habitats, and change in those habitats affects the organisms living there. When the environment changes in ways that affect a place's physical characteristics, temperature, or availability of food and water, some animals survive and reproduce, others move to new locations, yet others move into the transformed environment, and some die.
Use argument supported by evidence for how a living organism is a system of interacting subsystems composed of groups of cells.
In multicellular animals, the body is a system of multiple interacting subsystems. These subsystems are groups of cells that work together to form tissues. Tissues form organs that are specialized for particular body functions.
Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.
Organisms, and populations of organisms, are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors. In any ecosystem, organisms and populations with similar requirements for food, water, oxygen, or other resources may compete with each other for limited resources, access to which consequently constrains their growth and reproduction. Growth of organisms and population increases are limited by access to resources.
Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems.
Predatory interactions may reduce the number of organisms or eliminate whole populations of organisms. Although the species involved in competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial interactions vary across ecosystems, the patterns of interactions of organisms with their environments are shared. Emphasis is on predicting consistent patterns of interactions in different ecosystems in terms of the relationships among and between organisms.
Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.
Food webs are models that demonstrate how matter and energy is transferred between producers, consumers, and decomposers as the three groups interact within an ecosystem. Transfers of matter into and out of the physical environment occur at every level. The atoms that make up the organisms in an ecosystem are cycled repeatedly between the living and nonliving parts of the ecosystem.
Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services
Biodiversity describes the variety of species found in Earth's ecosystems. The completeness or integrity of an ecosystem's biodiversity is often used as a measure of its health. Changes in biodiversity can influence ecosystem services that humans rely on.
Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals' probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.
Natural selection leads to the predominance of certain traits in a population, and the suppression of others. Emphasis is on using concepts of natural selection in animals, such as overproduction of offspring, passage of time, variation in a population, selection of favorable traits, and heritability of traits.