Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection.
Using the standard means of identifying minerals (hardness, luster, color, streak, and magnetism) have students categorize 10 minerals and create a graph (both line and bar) to represent the data that they collected. For more details on this lesson, consult this LEARN NC resource.
Use information from several sources to provide evidence that Earth events can occur quickly or slowly.
Some Earth events happen very quickly; others occur very slowly, over a time period much longer than one can observe. Examples of events and timescales could include volcanic explosions and earthquakes, which happen quickly, and erosion of rocks, which occurs slowly.
Identify evidence from patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers for changes in a landscape over time to support an explanation for those changes.
Local, regional, and global patterns of rock formations reveal changes over time due to earth forces. The presence and location of certain fossil types indicate the order in which rock layers were formed. Examples of evidence from patterns could include rock layers with marine shell fossils above rock layers with plant fossils and no shells, indicating a change from land to water over time; and a canyon with different rock layers in the walls and a river in the bottom, indicating that over time a river through rock.
Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation.
Water, ice, wind, living organisms, and gravity break rocks, soils, and sediments into smaller particles and move them around. Examples of variables to test could include angle of slope in the downhill movement of water, amount of vegetation, relative rate of deposition, cycles of freezing and thawing of water, cycles of heating and cooling, and volume of water flow.
Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact.
Earth's major systems are the geosphere (solid and molten rock, soil, and sediments), the hydrosphere (water and ice), the atmosphere (air), and the biosphere (living things, including humans). These systems interact in multiple ways to affect Earth's surface materials and processes.
Analyze and interpret data for patterns in the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth under the assumption that natural laws operate today as in the past.
Emphasis is on finding patterns of changes in the level of complexity and the chronological order of fossil appearance in the rock layers.
Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata for how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth's history.
The geologic time scale interpreted from rock strata provides a way to organize Earth's history. Emphasis is on how analyses of rock formations and the fossils they contain are used to establish relative ages of major events in Earth's history.
Develop a model to describe the cycling of Earth's materials and the flow of energy that drives this process.
All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among the planet's system. This energy is derived from the sun and Earth's hot interior. Emphasis is on the processes of melting, crystallization, weathering, deformation, and sedimentation, which act together to form minerals and rocks through the cycling of Earth's materials.
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales.
All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among the planet's systems, producing chemical or physical changes in Earth's materials. The planet's systems interact over scales that range from microscopic to global in size, and they operate over fractions of a second to billions of years.
Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions.
Maps of ancient land and water patterns, based on investigations of rocks and fossils, make clear how Earth's plates have moved great distances, collided, and spread apart. Examples of data include similarities of rock and fossil types on different continents, the shapes of the continents, and the locations of ocean structures.
Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth's mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes.
Humans depend on Earth for many different resources. Examples of uneven distributions of resources as a result of past processes include petroleum, metal ores, and soil (locations of active weathering and/or deposition of rock).