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Rocks and Minerals: Standards

Idaho Common Core State Standards

Here are correlations to the National Common Core Language and Math standards and to the Idaho State Science Standards. If you'd like, you may go directly to the Idaho science standards for this topic. For more information about the overall standards, see the complete Idaho Content Standards for Science, the Next Generation Science Standards, the Common Core Language standards, or the Common Core Math standards.


First Grade

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.1.3 [CCSS page]

Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify something that is not understood.

Suggested Lesson

Invite a guest speaker to talk about rocks and minerals in the classroom. Allow students to ask the speaker questions.

Fourth Grade

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.4.1 [CCSS page]

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

Suggested Lesson

Explain what your favorite rock or mineral is and, using supportive details, tell why.

Fifth Grade

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.5.2b [CCSS page]

Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.

Suggested Lesson

Select a rock or mineral and tell what that material is used for in our everyday lives. Explain why this rock or mineral is used as opposed to other options.



CCSS.Math.Content.K.CC.A.1 [CCSS page]

Count to 100 by ones and by tens.

Suggested Lesson

Allow students to bring rocks to school in groups of ten in order to collect enough to make groups of 100. Make as many groups of 100 as they can in a given length of time.

First Grade

CCSS.Math.Content.1.NBT.B.3 [CCSS page]

Compare two two-digit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <.

Suggested Lesson

Use real or interactive whiteboard images of rocks to compare quantities of rocks in double digits.

Fourth Grade

CCSS.Math.Content.4.MD.B.4 [CCSS page]

Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection.

Suggested Lesson

Using the standard means of identifying minerals (hardness, luster, color, streak, and magnetism) have students categorize 10 minerals and create a graph (both line and bar) to represent the data that they collected. For more details on this lesson, consult this LEARN NC resource.



Physical Sciences: PS2-K-1 [ICS page]

Make observations to determine the effect of sunlight on Earth's surface.

Supporting Content:

Sunlight warms Earth's surface. Examples of Earth's surface could include sand and rocks.

Earth and Space Sciences: ESS2-K-1 [ICS page]

Use a model to represent the relationship between the needs of different plants and animals (including humans) and the places they live.

Supporting Content:

Living things need resources from the land and they live in places that have the things they need. Humans use natural resources for everything they do.

Second Grade

Earth & Space Sciences: ESS1-2-1 [ICS page]

Use information from several sources to provide evidence that Earth events can occur quickly or slowly.

Supporting Content:

Some Earth events happen very quickly; others occur very slowly, over a time period much longer than one can observe. Examples of events and timescales could include volcanic explosions and earthquakes, which happen quickly, and erosion of rocks, which occurs slowly.

Earth and Space Sciences: ESS2-2-1 [ICS page]

Compare multiple solutions designed to slow or prevent wind or water from changing the shape of the land.

Supporting Content:

Wind and water can change the shape of the land. Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs.

Fourth Grade

Earth & Space Sciences: ESS1-4-1 [ICS page]

Identify evidence from patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers for changes in a landscape over time to support an explanation for those changes.

Supporting Content:

Local, regional, and global patterns of rock formations reveal changes over time due to earth forces. The presence and location of certain fossil types indicate the order in which rock layers were formed. Examples of evidence from patterns could include rock layers with marine shell fossils above rock layers with plant fossils and no shells, indicating a change from land to water over time; and a canyon with different rock layers in the walls and a river in the bottom, indicating that over time a river through rock.

Earth and Space Sciences: ESS2-4-1 [ICS page]

Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation.

Supporting Content:

Water, ice, wind, living organisms, and gravity break rocks, soils, and sediments into smaller particles and move them around. Examples of variables to test could include angle of slope in the downhill movement of water, amount of vegetation, relative rate of deposition, cycles of freezing and thawing of water, cycles of heating and cooling, and volume of water flow.

Fifth Grade

Earth and Space Sciences: ESS2-5-1 [ICS page]

Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact.

Supporting Content:

Earth's major systems are the geosphere (solid and molten rock, soil, and sediments), the hydrosphere (water and ice), the atmosphere (air), and the biosphere (living things, including humans). These systems interact in multiple ways to affect Earth's surface materials and processes.

Sixth Grade/Middle School

Life Sciences: LS4-MS-1 [ICS page]

Analyze and interpret data for patterns in the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth under the assumption that natural laws operate today as in the past.

Supporting Content:

Emphasis is on finding patterns of changes in the level of complexity and the chronological order of fossil appearance in the rock layers.

Earth and Space Sciences: ESS1-MS-4 [ICS page]

Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata for how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth's history.

Supporting Content:

The geologic time scale interpreted from rock strata provides a way to organize Earth's history. Emphasis is on how analyses of rock formations and the fossils they contain are used to establish relative ages of major events in Earth's history.

Earth and Space Sciences: ESS2-MS-1 [ICS page]

Develop a model to describe the cycling of Earth's materials and the flow of energy that drives this process.

Supporting Content:

All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among the planet's system. This energy is derived from the sun and Earth's hot interior. Emphasis is on the processes of melting, crystallization, weathering, deformation, and sedimentation, which act together to form minerals and rocks through the cycling of Earth's materials.

Earth & Space Sciences: ESS2-MS- [ICS page]

Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales.

Supporting Content:

All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among the planet's systems, producing chemical or physical changes in Earth's materials. The planet's systems interact over scales that range from microscopic to global in size, and they operate over fractions of a second to billions of years.

Earth and Space Sciences: ESS2-MS-3 [ICS page]

Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions.

Supporting Content:

Maps of ancient land and water patterns, based on investigations of rocks and fossils, make clear how Earth's plates have moved great distances, collided, and spread apart. Examples of data include similarities of rock and fossil types on different continents, the shapes of the continents, and the locations of ocean structures.

Earth and Space Sciences: ESS3-MS-1 [ICS page]

Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth's mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes.

Supporting Content:

Humans depend on Earth for many different resources. Examples of uneven distributions of resources as a result of past processes include petroleum, metal ores, and soil (locations of active weathering and/or deposition of rock).

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