Conduct short research projects to answer a question. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources.
Research a satellite and write a persuasive argument as to why your satellite should be funded. Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details. You may want to use The Great Satellite Search from the Exploratorium as a model for this lesson.
Solve one - and two-step "how many more" and "how many less" problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs.
Using an infographic showing the numbers of satellites per country, figure out problems such as these: How many more satellites does the US have than China? How many fewer satellites does Canada have then the US? What is the most common use of satellites, and what is the second greatest use?
Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.
Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints.) The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria.) Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account.
Generate and compare multiple solutions that use patterns to transfer information.
Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and the constraints. Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions. Digitized information can be transmitted over long distances without significant degradation. High-tech devices, such as computers or cell phones, can receive and decode information and vice versa.
Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object's motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.
The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. Emphasis is on balanced and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion, frame of reference, and specification of units.
Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.
Gravitational forces are always attractive. There is a gravitational force between any two masses, but it is very small except when one or both of the objects have large mass (such as the Earth and the Sun.) Examples of evidence for arguments could include data generated from digital tools and charts displaying mass, strength of interaction, distance from the Sun, and orbital periods of objects within the solar system.
Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information to support the claim that digitized signals are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information than analog signals.
Emphasis is on a basic understanding that waves can be used for communication purposes. Examples could include radio wave pulses and conversion of stored binary patterns to make sound or text on a computer screen. Digitized signals (sent as wave pulses) are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information.
Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system.
Earth and its solar system are part of the Milky Way galaxy. A solar system consists of a star and a collection of objects, including planets, their moons, and asteroids that are held in orbit around the star by its gravitational pull on them. Emphasis for the model is on gravity as the force that holds together the solar system, and controls orbital motions within them. Evidences of models can be physical (such as computer visualizations of elliptical orbits) or conceptual (such as mathematical proportions relative to the size of familiar objects.)
Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system.
Emphasis is on the analysis of data from Earth-based instruments, space-based telescopes, and spacecraft to determine similarities and differences among solar system objects. Examples of scale properties include the sizes of an object's layers, surface features, and orbital radius.
Engineering and Technology Standards Content
ETS1.A: Defining Engineering Problems
A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. Such problems may have many acceptable solutions. Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems. Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account. The more precisely a design task's criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that is likely to limit possible solution.
ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions
Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem's solutions to other people. Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions. A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results in order to improve it. The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution. There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet criteria and constraints of a problem.
ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution
Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs. Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and the constraints.