CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.5.3 [CCSS page]
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
Select a historic volcano eruption and write a myth explaining the cause. Explain that the scientific understanding that we have today is not the basis for mythological stories, but that explanations were based on fictional monsters, heroes, heroines, and folklore. Work details about the location into the piece that impacts the myth, such as geographic features, animals or cultural attributes.
CCSS.Math.Content.K.NBT.A.1 [CCSS page]
Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (such as 18 = 10 + 8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.
Using a map of the Ring of Fire, find information on various volcanoes along the Pacific Rim. Count them as each one is studied. Print pictures or make drawings to revisit and count. Push pins and tags attached to the map would be another alternative.
CCSS.Math.Content.4.NBT.A.3 [CCSS page]
Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place.
Using this table from Oregon State, select ten U.S. volcanoes, round their respective elevations to the nearest hundred. Compare and order volcanoes in terms of elevations.
Earth & Space Sciences: ESS1-2-1 [ICS page]
Use information from several sources to provide evidence that Earth events can occur quickly or slowly.
Examples of events and timescales could include volcanic explosions and earthquakes, which happen quickly, and erosion of rocks, which occurs slowly.
Earth & Space Sciences: ESS1-4-1 [ICS page]
Identify evidence from patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers for changes in a landscape over time to support an explanation for those changes.
Local, regional, and global patterns of rock formations reveal changes over time due to earth forces, such as earthquakes or volcanoes. The presence and location of certain fossil types indicate the order in which rock layers were formed. There are three classifications of rocks produced within the rock cycle: sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous.
Earth & Space Sciences: ESS2-4-2 [ICS page]
Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth's features.
The locations of mountain ranges, deep ocean trenches, ocean floor structures, earthquakes, and volcanoes occur in patterns. Most earthquakes and volcanoes occur in bands that are often along the boundaries between continents and oceans. Major mountain chains form inside continents or near their edges. Maps can help locate the different land and water feature areas of Earth. Maps can include topographic maps of Earth's land and ocean floor, as well as maps of the locations of mountains, continental boundaries, volcanoes, and earthquakes.
Earth & Space Sciences: ESS3-4-2 [ICS page]
Generate and compare multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of natural Earth processes on humans.
A variety of hazards result from natural processes (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions). Humans cannot eliminate the hazards but can take steps to reduce their impacts. Examples of solutions could include designing an earthquake resistant building and improving monitoring of volcanic activity. Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions.
Sixth Grade/Middle School
Earth & Space Sciences: ESS1-MS-4 [ICS page]
Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata for how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth's history.
Emphasis is on how analyses of rock formations and fossils are used to establish the relative ages of major events in Earth's history. Examples of major events could range of being very recent to very old, and can include the formation of mountain chains or ocean basins, the extinction of living organisms, or large volcanic eruptions.
Earth & Space Sciences: ESS2-MS-2 [ICS page]
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales.
All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among the planet's systems. This energy is derived from the sun and Earth's hot interior. The energy that flows and matter that cycles produce chemical and physical changes in Earth's materials and living organisms. The planet's systems interact over scales that range from microscopic to global in size, and they operate over fractions of a second to billions of years. Emphasis is on how processes change Earth's surface at time and spatial scales that can be large or small, and how many geoscience processes (such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and meteor impacts) usually behave gradually but are punctuated by catastrophic events. These interactions have shaped Earth's history and will determine its future.
Earth & Space Sciences: ESS3-MS-1 [ICS page]
Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth's mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes.
Examples of uneven distributions of resources as a result of past processes include but are not limited to petroleum (locations of the burial of organic marine sediments and subsequent geologic traps), metal ores (locations of past volcanic and hydrothermal activity associated with subduction zones), and soil (locations of active weathering and/or deposition of rock).
Earth & Space Sciences: ESS3-MS-2 [ICS page]
Analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events and inform the development of technologies to mitigate their effects.
Emphasis is on how some natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions and severe weather, are preceded by phenomena that allow for reliable predictions, but others, such as earthquakes, occur suddenly and with no notice, and thus are not yet predictable. Examples of natural hazards can be taken from interior processes (such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions), surface processes (such as mass wasting and tsunamis), or severe weather events (such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods). Mapping the history of natural hazards in a region, combined with an understanding of related geologic forces can help forecast the locations and likelihoods of future events. Examples of data can include the locations, magnitudes, and frequencies of the natural hazards. Examples of technologies can be global or local.